MillerLab_Washington_University_Robot1_smallZinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly spaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are powerful tools in genome engineering.

These endonucleases can be designed to create targeted double-strand DNA breaks in genomic DNA. The repair of these double-strand breaks by endogenous cellular repair pathways can lead to targeted mutagenesis. Engineered endonucleases have been used successfully to create a wide variety of genetically modified cell lines and whole animals.